Mental health and wellbeing
What is a traumatic event?
What constitutes a ‘trauma’ is different for everyone. However, there are a number of events that have the potential to cause significant distress.
These include but are not limited to:
- threat of death
- serious injury
- viewing or handling of dead bodies
- death or serious injury of a close friend, colleague or family member
- exposure to a potentially contagious disease or toxic agent
- witnessing human misery or degradation on a large scale
- an action or inaction resulting in the serious injury or death of others.
Do traumatic events always impact negatively on people?
Certainly, traumatic events, by their very nature, can change people permanently - but quite often these changes are positive, causing people to re-assess their lives, their relationships and their beliefs in valuable and meaningful ways. People can gain insight into their character and their ability to cope and to utilise their support resources.
How often does it occur?
Unfortunately, being exposed to a traumatic event is not an uncommon experience, and not solely the province of the military. Surveys in Australia and overseas suggest that 50-65 per cent of people in the civilian community report at least one traumatic event in their lives. This figure would obviously be much higher for emergency services personnel such as police, fire fighters, ambulance officers and paramedics. The current data suggest that less that two per cent of Australian soldiers have developed PTSD following operational deployments, though figures from the US military indicate higher rates of up to 10 per cent.
Of the 30,325 current full-time Army members it is estimated that that approximately 18,800 have had operational service and therefore two per cent or about 375 will have developed PTSD. Further detail can be found in the ADF Mental Health Prevalence and Well-Being Study.
Does everyone develop PTSD after a traumatic event?
It is normal for most people to experience some form of distress after highly traumatic events. This may be a variety of emotions including fear, guilt, shame, helplessness or anger. The good news is that most will return to normal functioning after a short period of time, from a few days to several weeks, without intervention. However, even these people will still have recurrent memories of the event and some sadness or other emotions associated with these memories.
What is a normal reaction?
Most people experience strong reactions after traumatic events.
These may include:
- re-experiencing the event (visual images when either awake or asleep)
- intrusive thoughts about the event
- a desire to avoid anything associated to the event
- feelings of panic or being highly anxious
- feeling sad, tearful, hopeless or down
- feeling disorientated or that you have changed as a person
- increase alcohol intake or misuse of other substances such as nicotine
- feelings of guilt or anger
- trouble concentrating or poor memory
- sleep disturbance, excessive alertness or being easily startled
- feeling unable to control your moods, especially anger
- having difficulties managing relationships with others.
The key is the impact these symptoms have upon your ability to do your work and to maintain effective relationships with those around you. In most cases, the symptoms will subside by themselves, without treatment, and people can function normally.
When should I seek help?
If the symptoms above persist for more that four weeks, or they are causing you considerable distress and impacting upon your ability to work or function socially, you need to seek help.
Will seeking help damage my career?
PTSD is an illness that can affect anyone at any time. It is not a sign of weakness or some form of flaw in your character. With appropriate treatment the most likely outcome is that you will recover fully and go on to lead a productive, full life. However, the earlier you seek help the better the outcome will be for you. Likewise, you have valuable skills and experience - it is not Defence policy to discharge members if there is any chance of recovery. Sometimes, however, recovery is not always possible and then, like any other chronic illness which is not compatible with military service, you may be discharged. So, seek help early and the chances of this happening are greatly reduced.
Where can I get help?
If you are experiencing ongoing distress please seek help as soon as possible. Contact your local medical centre, chaplain, psychologist, social worker, duty officer/officer of the day or your immediate chain of command. You don't have to deal with PTSD on your own and there is help available. There are a number of online mental health tools which can assist members:
Veterans and Veterans Families Counselling Service is a counselling service for ADF members and their families to provide or arrange confidential help with: personal crisis; marital, family and other personal relationships, social interaction - that is, getting along with other people,stress and anxiety; and/or employment and financial problems.
Picking Up The Peaces for PTSD is a community group committed to a National Campaign to raise awareness about the signs and symptoms of PTSD. We believe that by identifying the problem and seeking treatment early, sufferers and their families can regain their quality of life.
Depression Australia website gives general information on depression, signs and symptoms and how to access help from accredited medical practitioners.
At Ease. Deployment, coming home from a war or peacekeeping zone or returning to civilian life may have an effect on mental health and wellbeing. These problems can be identified early, managed and treated. This website is designed to help you or someone you know recognise signs of mental health problems and act to improve and maintain health and wellbeing.
Beyond Blue is a national depression initiative which aims to build a society that understands and responds to the personal and social impact of depression. This organisation is working actively to prevent depression and improve the quality of life for those affected by it.
Lifeline is a not-for-profit organisation offering a number of services at both the national and local level. The organisation answers on average 450,000 calls for help each year. The organisation has also expanded its operations to include a number of programs that promote mental health, wellbeing and help seeking behaviours.
Black Dog Institute is a not-for-profit, education, research, clinical and community-oriented facility offering specialist expertise in depression and bipolar disorder.